Eight calves cloned from somatic cells of a single adult

Abstract Eight calves were derived from differentiated cells of a single adult cow, five from cumulus cells and three from oviductal cells out of 10 embryos transferred to surrogate cows (80 percent success). All calves were visibly normal, but four died at or soon after birth from environmental causes, and postmortem analysis revealed no abnormality. […]

Uroplakin gene expression by normal and neoplastic human urothelium

Abstract cDNA sequences for human uroplakins UPIa, UPIb, UPII, and UPIII were cloned and used to investigate uroplakin transcription by normal and neoplastic urothelial cells. Normal urothelium expressed mRNA for all four uroplakins, although UPIII could be detected only by ribonuclease protection assay. By in situ hybridization, UPIa and UPII were confined to superficial cells […]

Large offspring syndrome in cattle and sheep

Abstract Bovine and ovine embryos exposed to a variety of unusual environments prior to the blastocyst stage have resulted in the development of unusually large offspring which can also exhibit a number of organ defects. In these animals, the increased incidence of difficult parturition and of fetal and neonatal losses has limited the large-scale use […]

Parthenogenetic activation of marmoset

Abstract Mammalian oocytes can be induced to resume meiosis without fertilization, and the resulting parthenogenetic embryos carry only maternal chromosomes. Human oocytes can be activated by many chemical and physical stimuli, but postimplantation studies of human parthenogenetic embryos are not ethically acceptable. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a good model for studying primate […]

AZFb deletions predict the absence of spermatozoa with testicular sperm extraction

Abstract Genetic abnormalities, including partial deletions of the Y-chromosome, are commonly detectable in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). NOA can be treated using testicular sperm extraction (TESE) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Recent studies have shown that the presence of deletions involving the AZFc region do not appear to affect the chance of retrieving spermatozoa […]

Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in young low responders

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the ovarian content of selectable (2-5 mm) follicles using three-dimensional ultrasonography in low responders to ovarian stimulation for IVF. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: IVF program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. PATIENT(S): Ten low responders < or =35 years of age with normal basal serum FSH and eight control patients […]

Relationship of ovarian stromal volume to serum androgen concentrations

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate of the relationship of ovarian stromal volume, measured using three-dimensional ultrasound, to serum androgen concentrations in patients with polycystic ovaries. Serum gonadotrophin, oestradiol and androgen concentrations and ovarian volume measurements were obtained in the early follicular phase from 100 women undergoing assisted conception treatment cycles. Group […]

The role of three-dimensional ultrasonographic images in ovarian measurement

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine whether three-dimensional ultrasonography can increase the ability to evaluate the ovary and follicles, especially in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: University hospital endocrine and infertility center. PATIENT(S): Sixty-six patients undergoing routine gynecologic evaluation were divided into two groups: the normal control group consisted of 22 […]

Tissue engineering of a bioartificial renal tubule

Abstract Development of a bioartificial renal tubule with a confluent monolayer of renal epithelial cells supported on a permeable synthetic surface may be the first step to further optimization of renal substitution therapy currently used with hemodialysis or hemofiltration. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, a permanent renal epithelial cell line, were seeded into the lumen of […]

The shape of the endometrium evaluated with three-dimensional ultrasound

Abstract The objective of this prospective follow-up study was to evaluate the potential utility of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound to differentiate intrauterine from extrauterine gestations. Fifty-four pregnancies with a gestational age <10 weeks and with an intrauterine gestational sac <5 mm in diameter formed the study group. The configuration of the endometrium in the frontal plane […]